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Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
Multiple Sclerosis International ID 735486, Kim, W.,et al, 2012
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Article Abstract
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgC/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD diagnosis criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.
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brainstem,lesion of
cerebellar lesion
cerebral cortex
corpus callosum,lesion of
diagnostic criteria
heralding manifestation
linear lesion
medulla oblongata,lesion of
meningeal enhancement
nausea and vomiting
neurologic disease,diagnoses of
neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease)
neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
neuromyelitis optica,IgG
optic neuritis
periaqueductal lesion
respiratory failure
review article
spinal cord,lesion of
splenium of corpus callosum
thalamus,lesion of
water channel antibodies
white matter disease

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